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INTRODUCTION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS
UNTRACED MANUSCRIPTS
SCRIBE B=ADAM PINKHURST
SCRIBE D=JOHN MARCHAUNT
THE HAMMOND SCRIBE
THE “HOOKED-g” SCRIBES
THE PETWORTH SCRIBE
THE BERYN SCRIBE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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A Digital Catalogue of the
Pre-1500 Manuscripts and Incunables of the
Canterbury Tales
Second Edition
MANUSCRIPT:  Tc3
Location:  CambridgeTrinity College MS R.3.19
☙       ☙       ☙
MANUSCRIPT CONTENTS:
The contents are listed not in the current (misbound) ordering, but in the order in which they were likely intended to occur (see Fletcher 1987, pp. xx-xxii).
1. “Festum Natalis domini” (“Tronos celorum Continens”; DIMEV 6060.5): fols. 1r-v
2. “O beauteuous braunche flour of formosyte” (DIMEV 3830): fols. 2r-v
3. “In Womanhede as auctours all wryte” (Extracts from Lydgate’s Fall of Princes: 4:2374-2387; 3:1373-1421; 3:77-84; DIMEV 2669): fols. 2v-3r
4. “Help me to Weep” (“O ye that ben or haue ben in dyssease”; DIMEV 4103): fol. 3v
5. “Let Pyte Comfort Your Daungerness” (“All lust and lykyng I begyn to [leue]”; DIMEV 344): fols. 3v-4r
6. “The Lover’s Book” (“O lady myne to Whom thys boke I sende”; DIMEV 3953): fols. 4r-6v
7. “A Lover’s Envoy” (“Go lytyl boke for dredefull ys thy message”; DIMEV 1237): fols. 7r-8v; 154r
8. “The Craft of Lovers” (DIMEV 5990): fols. 154v-156r
9. “A Ballad on Hypocritical Women” (“Of theyre nature they gretly theym delyte”; DIMEV 4225): fol. 156v
10. “Now fresshe floure to me that ys so bryght” (DIMEV 3733): fols. 157r-v
11. “Bycorne and Chychevache, þe deuise of a peynted clothe” (Lydgate: MacCracken 1934, pp. 433-438; DIMEV 4032): fols. 157v-159r
12. “Honour and Ioy helth and prosp[er]yte” (DIMEV 2053): fol. 159v
13. “Alone walkyng” (DIMEV 453): fol. 160ra
14. “In the season of ffeuer when hit was full colde” (DIMEV 2624): fol. 160ra-b
15. “Lady of pite for þy sorowes þt þu haddest” (DIMEV 3027): fol. 160va-b
16. The Court of Sapience (stanzas 29, 32, 53, 54; DIMEV 3989): fol. 161ra-va
17. “The Judgement of Paris” (“Pallas loquit[ur] ad Paris[um] de Troia”; DIMEV 4997): fol. 161va-b
18. “The Testament of Dan John Lydgate” (Parts 2 & 4; MacCracken 1911, pp. 329-362; DIMEV 3937): fols. 162r-169r (fol. 169v blank)
19. “The vnware woo that co[m]meth on gladnesse” (Extracts from Lydgate’s Fall of Princes: 1:3522-3528; 1:3795-3801; DIMEV 5516): fol. 67r (bracketed and marked “Vacat” in rubric)
20. The Assembly of Gods ([Lydgate?]; DIMEV 6393): fols. 67v-97v
21. “Churl and Bird” (Lydgate: MacCracken 1934, pp. 468-485; DIMEV 4420): fols. 9r-11v
22. “Isopes Fabules” (Lydgate; Fables 1-3, first four stanzas of Fable 4; MacCracken 1934, pp. 566-599; DIMEV 6701): fols. 12r-16r (fol. 16v blank)
23. Parliament of Fowls (Chaucer; DIMEV 5373; with an added stanza: “Mast[e]r Geffray Chauns[er]s that now lyth in graue”; DIMEV 3442): fols. 17r-25r (fol. 25v blank)
24. Guiscardo and Ghismonda (translated from Boccaccio’s Decameron; DIMEV 5116): fols. 26r-40v
25. Reflections of a Prisoner (George Ashby; DIMEV 718): fols. 41r-45v (fols. 46r-48v blank)
26. Secrees of old Philisoffres (Stanzas 186-212 only: “A trates of the iij seasons of the yere…compilyed by John Lydgate as aperyth in his boke of the secretis to alysaunder from ariystotyll”; Lydgate and Benedict Burgh; ed. Steele 1894; Voigts and Kurtz 2037.00 & 7935.00; DIMEV 1544): fols. 49r-52r
27. “Of the Four Complexions” (Voigts and Kurtz 3874.00 & 3875.00; DIMEV 4168): fols. 52v-53r (fols. 53v-54v blank)
28. “Here begynneth the Boke callyd Assemble de Damys” (DIMEV 2575): fols. 55r-62v (fols. 66r-v blank)
29. La Belle Dame sans Mercy ([Richard Roos?]; DIMEV 1761): fols. 98r-108v
30. “The .X. Commaundment[es] of loue” (DIMEV 965): fols. 109r-110r
31. “The .IX. ladyes Worthy” (DIMEV 4398): fols. 110v-111r (fols. 111v-113v blank)
32. Legend of Good Women (A-Text; Chaucer; DIMEV 177): fols. 114r-150v
33. “Complaint to Pity” (Chaucer; DIMEV 4375): fols. 151r-v (fols. 153r-v blank)
34. Bochas (A conflation of extracts from Chaucer’s Monk’s Tale [copied from Cx¹] and Lydgate’s Fall of Princes; see Dixon 1995, pp. 327-328 for a description of the Bochas compilatio; DIMEV 6367; DIMEV 6295; DIMEV 2316): fols. 170v-202r (fols. 202v-204v blank)
35. “I haue a lady where so she be” (DIMEV 2169): fols. 205r-v
36. “O mosy Quince hangyng by your stalke” (DIMEV 4006): fols. 205v-206r
37. “Worship women wine and unwieldy age” (1 stanza inserted between stanzas 1 and 3 of Item 36 [DIMEV 4006]: DIMEV 6798): fol. 205v
38. “Horns Away” (Lydgate: MacCracken 1934, pp. 662-665; DIMEV 4169: fols. 206v-207r
39. “Beware of deceitful women” (Skeat 1897, 7:295-296; DIMEV 3184): fols. 207r-v
40. “Pilgrim’s Song” (“Men may leue all gamys”; DIMEV 3466): fols. 208r-v
41. “He that wyll in Eschepe ete a goose so fat” (DIMEV 1910): fol. 208v
42. “They That No While Endure” (“A knyght that ys as hardy as a lyon”; DIMEV 81): fols. 209r-v
43. “The wyseman sayd vnto hys sonne” (DIMEV 5530): fols. 209v-211r
44. “Hear and see and say noughtl” (occurs at lines 85-86 of 5530; DIMEV 1919): fol. 210v
45. “See and hear and hold still” (occurs at lines 86-89 of 5530; DIMEV 4798): fol. 210v
46. “The good wyfe taughte hyr dowghtere” (DIMEV 1098): fols. 211r-213v (fols. 213v-216v blank)
47. The Court of Love (DIMEV 6756): fols. 217r-234r
48. Isopes Fabules (Fables 7, 5, “wryten by John Stow”; Lydgate; MacCracken 1934, pp. 566-599; DIMEV 2522): fols. 235r-236r (fols. 236v-239v blank)
47. Piers of Fulham’s “A Man that lovith ffisshyng and fowlyng bothe” (Voigts and Kurtz 637.00; DIMEV 112): fols. 240r-244v (fol. 245r blank but ruled; fols. 245v-246v blank)
48. The Petigrew of Englond (Prose, “before the death of Edward IV in 1483 made it irrelevant” [Fletcher 1987, p. xxviii]): fols. 247r-251r (fols. 251v-254v blank but ruled)
Progress of Copying: 
Almost certainly some of the booklets in Tc³ were copied at approximately the same time as some of the booklets in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21: both were copied primarily by the same scribe; the two MSS share several paper stocks; and the same medieval hand foliated the booklets individually in both MSS. The outer leaves of the booklets tend to be more soiled than the inner ones, suggesting that they existed as discrete booklets for some time before being bound together in these two sister volumes. In MS R.3.21, Lydgate’s “The Kings of England sithen William Conqueror” is repeated two different booklets, and other texts are duplicated as well. As Mooney points out, “one booklet, Booklet IX, contains all of the duplicated texts in MS R.3.21: five poems from Booklet V, one from Booklet VII and one from Booklet VIII” (1998, p. 247; see her note 12 for a listing of the duplicated texts). Items 7-17 (Q [2]) were all copied on a paper stock from the mid-1470s (this stock is shared by MS R.3.21 in its Booklet IV). Booklet VII, the last part of Booklet I, Booklet X, and all of the first gathering of Booklet IX except for the added outer bifolium share a paper stock with MS R.3.21 found in its Booklets V-VIII; it is reasonable to suspect they were all copied at about the same time, but the watermark has not been precisely dated. The central bifolium of Q [24], part of the Booklet containing the Bochas compilation also appears in one central bifolium in a gathering of four in MS R.3.21 (fols. 230+231). This paper can be dated to 1474-1477, with the later date from an example that may be identical. Finally, the paper stock of Q [21] is also found in a Caxton edition of about 1477; this, in turn, suggests that paper stock 3, which precedes paper stock 11 in the same booklet, can be dated to approximately the same period.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION:
Materials:  
Paper, 2° and 4°.
Paper stock(s):
See Fletcher 1987, pp. xxii-xxvi for betaradiographic reproductions of the watermarks. For illustrations and analyses of the paper stocks in the manuscripts of the “Hammond Scribe” see Mosser 2007 (the paper stocks for Tc³ are described and analyzed, but not illustrated).
1. Scissors, 4° (Fletcher’s Figs. 5 & 6): fols. 1-16; 67-81; 82-97
2. Scissors with Post Horn, 4° (Fletcher’s Fig. 7), similar to Briquet 3702 (Gênes 1454), but not identical with that mark: fols. 17-25
3. Gothic P with quatrefoil, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 1): fols. 26-41; 42+48; 55-66; 114-145; 146+153; 148-151; 179-191; 197-204; 217-232; 247-254
4. Gothic P with quatrefoil, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 3): fols. 49-54
5. Gothic P with quatrefoil, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 2), very close to Piccard’s IX.985 (Utrecht, 1473) and IX.989 (Köln, Rheinland 1475); perhaps a variant state of Papiers Briquet 23391, Leeuwenhorst 1472; also very close to Papiers Briquet 13115 (Douai 1474); Papiers Briquet 23501, Namur 1476 (the mark is virtually identical with this tracing, but shifted to the left in relation to the chains, which are also of the same spacing). The same mark occurs in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21. fols. 85-156 (see the Hammond Scribe): fols. 154-161
6. Gothic P with quatrefoil, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 4), very close to Piccard’s IX.154 (Bensberg [Köln], 1482); the same mark occurs in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21 (see the Hammond Scribe): fols. 170+179; 180-188; 189-191; 194-196
7. Shield, crowned, bearing an “a” surmounted by a cross, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 9), Briquet 7960 (Paris, 1476); the same mark occurs in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21 (see the Hammond Scribe): fols. 43-47; 240-246
8. Crown with scepter, 4° (Fletcher’s Fig. 8); the same mark occurs in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21, fols. 157-220 (see the Hammond Scribe): fols. 98-113; 162-178 205-216
9. Crowned fleur-de-lis, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 11), cf. Briquet 7252 (Sens 1474; Paris 1475); closer to the unpublished Papiers Briquet 11703 (Le Puy 1476), and perhaps identical with Papiers Briquet 11648 (Montferrano 1477). The same mark occurs in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21 (see the Hammond Scribe): fols. 192+193
10. Flag, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 10), cf. Briquet “Etandard” 5989 (Palerme 1477); closer to the unpublished Papiers Briquet 6622 (Catane 1489): fols. 233-246
11. Seated Pope, 2° (Fletcher’s Fig. 12), cf. Briquet 7546-50 (1451-84); identical to the paper stock in Caxton’s History of Jason (STC 15383 (1477): fols. 147+152
Page Size:  
26.8 x 19.5 cm.
Collation:
The following collation observes the obvious division of Tc³ into a series of booklets. Fols. 154-169 and 67-97 are misbound in the present binding; their logical and original positionings are restored in this collation. The MS was foliated once in the fifteenth century (with each booklet foliated separately), in the same hand that foliated Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21; a second, modern foliation follows the current ordering of the MS and is amended to reflect leaves lost subsequently. In the collation, I supply the medieval foliation in parentheses (following Fletcher 1987, pp. xx-xxii; Mooney 1998, p. 242, Table 1):
Booklet I
[1]8 fols. 1-8 (1-8)
[2]8 fols. 154-161 (9-15: two consecutive leaves are foliated “14”)
[3]8 fols. 162-169 (16-23)
Booklet II
[4]8 (–6; cancel, with a catchword on 71v corresponding to the first words of 72r) fols. 67-73 (1-7)
[5-7]8 fols. 74-97 (8-31)
[8]8 fols. 9-16 (32-39)
Booklet III
[9]8+1 (8+χ1: stub of the added singleton visible before [9].1) fols. 17-25 (1-9)
Booklet IV
[10-11]8 fols. 26-41 (1-16)
[12]8 (–6: stub between fols. 46-47) fols. 42-48 (17-23)
Booklet V
[13]6 fols. 49-54 (1-6)
Booklet VI
[14]12 fols. 55-66 (1-12)
Booklet VII
[15-16]8 fols. 98-113 (1-16)
Booklet VIII
[17-21]8 fols. 114-153 (1-40)
Booklet IX
[22]10 fols. 170-179 (1-10)note
[23]10 (–1: stub) fols. 180-188 (11-19)
[24-25]8 fols. 189-204 (20-35)
Booklet X
[26]8 fols. 205-212 (1-8)
[27]6 (–3, 4) fols. 213-216 (9-14; 11 & 12 lost after medieval foliation and one after an earlier modern foliation)
Booklet XI
[28-29]8 fols. 217-232 (1-16)
[30]8 (–1: stub) fols. 233-239 (17-23)
Booklet XII
[31]8 (–7: stub) fols. 240-246 (1-7)
Booklet XIII
[32]10 (–1.10: cancels) fols. 247-254 (2-9)
Format:
Scribe A employs rubrication for titles, marginalia, explicits and incipits, and first words of texts. In the first two gatherings (fols. 1r-8, 154-161), verses are marked with rubricated brackets. Guide letters are left for unexecuted initials. Scribe A uses brown crayon to rule the written space and generally uses single-column format. Where he deviates from this (e.g., fols. 9-16, Items 21-22), the text crowds the page and is now partially-trimmed at the fore-edge. Scribe B uses no rubrication or ruling. Scribes C and D use a violet ink to rule the written space in their booklets. As Mooney has observed, the same color ink was used to rule the texts in Oxford, St. John’s MS 266/printed book b.2.21 (1998, p. 263; see further below under Hands). Scribe C’s work also has rubricated titles, incipits/explicits, and headings. Initials are marked by guide letters but unexecuted. Stow’s texts are rubricated (initials, incipits/explicits).
Hand(s):
The primary scribe, Scribe A: fols. 1r-45v; 55r-213r. This scribe also copied Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21 (in which the Hammond Scribe copies fols. 34r-49v); Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Douce 322 (see, e.g., Mooney 1998, pp. 254-257; facsimile on p. 256, Plate 7), Oxford, Bodleian Library, Eng. th. e.17 (Life of St Barbara, Life of St Dorothy), and Oxford, Bodleian Library, Eng.th. e.18 (Life of St Margaret; Dresvina 2007). Scribe A uses a secretary script for the text, featuring a distinctive counter-clockwise curl at the ends of “tails” on g and y; horned, B-shaped s, alternating with sigma s in final position; both looped and unlooped forms of d; short r, with 2-shaped r used after round graphs; an h with an extended finishing stroke, or tail; single-compartment a; open e, with occasional circular e in final position. The majuscule, two-compartment A graph is formed with one continuous stroke, beginning with a counter-clockwise loop. This graph is rarely employed as a minuscule form, where it extends well above the x-height. The scribe’s display script is a bastard anglicana with quadrata-influenced feet. Body height is ca. 1-1.5 mm.
The contribution of Scribe B is limited to Q [13] (Booklet V), the only part of the MS to use paper stock 4. This scribe’s work, then, has no intrinsic material or textual connection to the work of Scribe A. The hand looks later than Scribe A’s, and is certainly a looser, more informal, and more cursive secretary, written with a narrow nib at the beginning of his stint. The tall, counter-clockwise hook that finishes final sigma s graphs looks more characteristic of mid-sixteenth century hands. The majuscule A is formed in similar fashion to that of Scribe A, but is much more open, eliminating even the suggestion of an upper compartment. The scribe uses a broader nib, or exerts more pressure, in his work on fols. 50v-53r, and perhaps as a consequence the hand seems increasingly more controlled and professional. Body height is ca. 1-2 mm.
Scribe C copies only Booklet XII (Item 46). This scribe also copied Oxford, St. John’s College MS 266, containing Lydgate’s Siege of Thebes. The St. John’s MS was used by Wynkyn de Worde as copytext for his [ca. 1500] edition of the Siege of Thebes (STC 17031; see Bone 1931-32, pp. 286-295; Fletcher 1987, p. xxviii; Blake 1989, pp. 411-412; Mooney 1998, pp. 257-258). Bound together with MS 266 are copies of STC 5083 (Cx²), STC 5094 (Caxton’s edition of Troilus and Criseyde [1483]), and STC 17957 (Caxton’s Quattuor Sermones [1482-3]). These printed texts have the combined shelfmark St. John’s b.2.21. Scribe C writes an upright secretary hand, oriented above the ruled line: descenders of h, y, and g often terminate at the line. The hand’s single-compartment a occurs with a rounded lobe as well as with a more angular lobe; the scribe occasionally uses a tall, two-compartment a, e.g., fol. 217r, 3 up, “accept”; d is usually unlooped, with the straight ascender angling sharply back over the body of the graph, but a looped form occurs occasionally; z-shaped r occurs in all positions. A larger, more blocky form of the script is used for proper nouns and other kinds of emphases. Body height is ca. 1 mm.
Scribe D copies Booklets XI and XIII (Items 44 & 47). This hand bears marked resemblance to Scribe A, but is oriented above the ruled line, with descenders of h, y, and g terminating on the line. As with Scribe A, Scribe D’s g has a counter-clockwise hook on the tail; he uses primarily the short form of on r, but also uses a z-shaped form after round forms, but also initially. Body height is ca. 1 mm.
John Stow adds Item 45 on leaves left blank at the end of Booklet XII (fols. 235r-236r), where he appends “wryten by John Stow/”.
Scribe F writes a single folio (fol. 42r-v; identified by Livingston 2005).
Decoration:
None.
Binding:
Gilt brown calf sewn on five double bands. Arms of George Wilmer on covers (B.A. T. C. C., 1622, according to a note on inside front cover).

HISTORY:
Date:
For most of the MS, where the paper stocks can be dated with some confidence, a date in the mid-late 1470s is probable. As the extract from Monk’s Tale used Cx¹ as its copytext, 1476 is suggested as the terminus a quo for that booklet. As Fletcher notes, the final item has a terminus ad quem of 1483 (1987, p. xxviii).
Language: 
Forms that occur througout Scribe A’s stint, across numerous textual traditions, include: hyr HER, theyr THEIR, theym THEM, yef IF, and eyen EYES. The scribe varies his spellings for THROUGH, most commonly using either thorowgh or thorough. The area common to all of these spellings, except for the last one, is Leicestershire/Lincolnshire, but thorough is a rare variant in Lincolnshire.
Provenance:
Roger Thorney, London Merchant and member of the Mercer’s Company (d. 1515), owned at least one of the booklets (IX) in MS R.3.21 (on fol. 245v in that MS is “E[x]plicit qd: Roger Thorney”: see Mooney 1978, plate 2). Thorney also owned Oxford, St. John’s MS 266 and provided Wynkyn de Worde with copytexts for some of his editions: The Assembly of Gods was printed from Tc³’s Booklet II (Bone 1931-32; Blake 1989, pp. 426-427). Thorney’s widow married William Middleton, who signs his name in MS R.3.21 on fols. 85r, 175r, and 221r (Booklets IV, VI, and IX). The earliest mark of ownership in Tc³ is that of John Stow (fol. 236r; d. 1605), who adds Item 45 in the MS on blank leaves. Mooney suggests that the scarlet ruling in Oxford, St. John’s MS 266 (used by Caxton’s successor, Wynkyn de Worde as copytext and bound together with three Caxton editions, also ruled in scarlet) and in the final three booklets of Tc³, links Tc³ “with Caxton’s workshop” (1998, p. 263). Mooney concludes by suggesting that Tc³ and MS R.3.21 “might be John Stow’s compilations, bringing together booklets of similar content from his purchases from print shop stock and private libraries….If he might be considered the foliator and compiler, then it follows that John Stow, who confused scholars for many generations by his inaccurate attributions in these volumes, would also, by binding up these many booklets into these two volumes, be responsible for initiating our misconceptions about their production, purpose, whereabouts, and use between the time of their writing and his possession of them some eighty years later” (p. 266). Tc³, along with MSS R.3.20 and R.3.21, were given to Trinity College by George Wilmer (d. 1626).

References:
Blake, Norman F. “Manuscript to Print.” In Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 403-32. 419.
Boffey, Julia, and Carol Meale. “Selecting the Text: Rawlinson C. 86 and Some Other Books for London Readers.” In Felicity Riddy, ed. Regionalism in Late Mediaeval Manuscripts and Texts: Essays Celebrating the Publication of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991. pp. 143-69. 
Dixon, Lori J. “The Canterbury Tales Miscellanies: A Contextual Study of Manuscripts Anthologizing Individual Canterbury Tales.” Diss. University of Delaware, 1995. 183-94; 322-8.
Edwards, A. S. G., and J. Hedley. “John Stowe, The Craft of Lovers and T.C.C. R.3.19.” Studies in Bibliography 28 (1975): 265-68. 
Edwards, A. S. G., and J. Hedley. “John Stowe, The Craft of Lovers and T.C.C. R.3.19.” Studies in Bibliography 28 (1975): 265-68. 
Edwards, A. S. G. “John Stow and Middle English Literature.” In John Stow (1525-1605) and the Making of the English Past. Ian Gadd and Alexandra Gillespie, eds. London: British Library, 2004. 109-18. 
Fletcher, Bradford Y., introd. MS Trinity R.3.19. The Facsimile Series of the Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, vol. 5. Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1987. 
Hammond, Eleanor P. Chaucer: A Bibliographical Manual. 1908; rpt. New York: Peter Smith, 1933.  193.
Klinedinst, Lloyd F., Jr. “The Scribal Art of Textual Transmission: A Study of Fifteenth-Century Manuscript Tradition in Nineteen Manuscripts Containing Selected Canterbury Tales.” Diss. University of Florida, 1971. 27-38.
Manly, John M., and Edith Rickert, eds. The Text of the Canterbury Tales: Studied on the Basis of All Known Manuscripts. 8 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1940. 1:532-4.
MacCracken, Henry Noble. “A New Manuscript of Chaucer’s Monkes Tale.” Modern Language Notes 23 (1908): 93. 
McCormick, Sir William and Janet E. Heseltine. The Manuscripts of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales: A Critical Description of Their Contents. Oxford: Clarendon, 1933. 561.
Mooney, Linne R. The Index of Middle English Prose: Handlist XI, Manuscripts in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1995. 22.
Mooney, Linne R. “The Booklets of Trinity College, Cambridge MSS R.3.19 and R.3.21.” Papers of the 1996 York Manuscripts Conference, in Honour of Professor Derek Pearsall. Ed. Alistair Minnis. Rochester, NY: York Medieval Press, 2001. 241-66. 
Mosser, Daniel W. “Dating the Manuscripts of the ‘Hammond Scribe’: What the Paper Evidence Tells Us.” The Journal of the Early Book Society 10 (2007): 31-70. 
Owen, Charles A., Jr. The Manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1991. 113.
Seymour, Michael C. A Catalogue of Chaucer Manuscripts. Volume I, Works before The Canterbury Tales. Aldershot and Brookfield: Scolar Press, 1995. 136-7.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Digital Facsimile of Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.19. [http://sites.trin.cam.ac.uk/james/show.php?index=1370]