THE HAMMOND SCRIBE
This prolific scribe, referred to as the “Hammond Scribe,”
may have been John Multon (d. 1475note
) based on
the occurrences of “Quod Multon 1458” on fol. 215r
and “Quod Multon” on fols. 217r
, and 222r
in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.14.52. Linne Mooney, however, argues
that the identification is incorrect since the name occurs only in one text, “a tract on
making and using a quadrant,” and suggests that Multon may instead
identify the source of the quadrant text (Mooney 1993
, p. 1028, and n.
The hand is mixed, with the “rolled-umbrella” secretary
descenders on long s
, an elongated, leftward-slanting, and
slender tail on p
, single-compartment a
, z-shaped r
, with the looped d
and two-compartment g
of anglicana. The scribe occasionally employs a tailed g
The scribe’s display script in Py
is a version of
textura semiquadrata. In addition to the scribe’s copies of
the Canterbury Tales
described elsewhere in this catalogue (Hl²
), his work has been found in the following
1. Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21 (fols. 34r
, the section containing Parce Mihi Domine
and Pety Job
; Hammond 1929, p. 33
2. Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.14.52: Treatises of
Roger Bacon: “a collection of treatises, recipes, lists, and problems, principally
related to the practice of medicine, but also strong in the related sciences of mathematics
and astronomy/astrology” (Mooney
1993, p. 1028),
including “The Seven Liberal Arts: A Late Middle English
Encyclopedia” (ed. Mooney
1037-1052). See Tavormina
2006 for a comprehensive study of
3. Trinity College, Cambridge MS O.3.11 (identified by
5. British Library MS Arundel 59 (Hoccleve’s De regimine principum
’s translation of the Secrees of
1544], and “three miscellaneous literary collections” [Hammond 1929
, p. 27; Green
6. British Library MS Cotton Claudius A.viii (fols. 175r
: “a post-mediaeval assemblage of
independent items and fragments of earlier books,” including Sir
John Fortescue’s Governance of England
“which refers to King Edward IV and must be dated after
1471, when the author first gave him allegiance [Doyle 1959
8. British Library MS Harley 372 (fols. 71r
: Hoccleve, De Regimine
, beginning at 3312: “[M]ercy aftir the word of Seynt Austyn |
Of hert is a verray compassioun”; see Green 1978
facsimile of fol. 103r
9. British Library MS Harley 4999 (Statutes of the Realm).
10. Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson D.913 (fol. 43r-v
: “a nineteenth-century assemblage of
English and French binding fragments and larger excerpts from that collection, many of
considerable interest.” Fol. 43 contains a fragment of the English prose Merlin
, p. 433]).
11. Worcester Cathedral Library MS F.172 (“English
prose translations of Latin apocrypha and authentic books of scripture, exemplary tales,
devotional and didactic treatises, and ecclesiastical decrees, with some vernacular
contemplative compositions” [Doyle 1959
, pp. 430-431];
for a complete description of the contents, see DiMarco and
1978, pp. 1-8).
12. British Library MS Additional 29901: “Tracts on State Ceremonials” (identified by the late Jeremy J. Griffiths; see Mooney 2000
The most recent analyses of the Hammond Scribe’s spellings are Horobin
2003, pp. 157-58; and Matheson
2006. Examining the scribe’s body of work, Horobin
observes the following marked “Kentish features”: “‘bien’ BE, and
related spellings showing 〈ie〉 for OE e
, and OF e
,” as in hield
for HELD, chiere
for CHEER, and thiese
for THESE. “Py also contains
a number of broadly Western dialect features, such as OE y
〈u〉, 〈uy〉, e.g. ‘fuyre’, ‘busie’ and the
single occurrence of the form ‘bott’ BUT. However these forms are not found in any
other manuscript in this scribe’s hand, and are therefore likely to derive from the exemplar.
Alongside the forms showing OE y
in 〈u〉 are a number of
spellings, common to Py and other manuscripts in the scribe’s hand, with OE y
reflected in 〈y, i〉, as shown in ‘myrry’, ‘synne’, ‘chirche’, and it seems likely that these forms represent the
scribe’s preferred usage. This mixture of forms suggests that the scribe’s native
dialect was that of Kent
and that he was an immigrant to London
where his prolific copying career resulted in the gradual adoption of a number of Type IV spelling
features” (2003, p. 158).
concludes that the “cumulative weight of
the…spelling features suggests strongly that they originated in northwest Essex
or southwest Suffolk,” and finds this
“especially intriguing in light of the Cook and Vale
family ties to these areas” (2006,
p. 87; John Vale
’s monogram is found on fol. 1r
in Trinity R.14.52 and also occurs in Harley
2251 on fol. 175r
and Worcester Cathedral
Library MS F.172 on fol. 169v
was “secretary and man of
affairs to Sir Thomas Cook
, a member of the Draper’s Company and Mayor of London
2006, p. 57, citing Sutton and Visser-Fuchs
1995, pp. 82 and passim).
Christianson, C. Paul. “Evidence for the Study of London’s Late Medieval
Manuscript-Book Trade.” In Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and
Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 87-108. [esp. 99-101, notes 38 & 43]
Christianson, C. Paul. A Directory of London Stationers and Book Artisans
1300-1500. New York: Bibliographical Society of America, 1990. 136-7
DiMarco, Vincent, and Leslie Perelman, eds. The Middle English Letter of
Alexander to Aristotle. Costerius n.s. 13. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1978. [Description of Worcester Cathedral Library MS F.172]
Doyle, A. I. “An Unrecognized Piece of Piers the Ploughman’s
Creed and Other Work by Its Scribe.” Speculum 34 (1959): 428-36. [Two facsimiles: Harley MS 78, 3r; Cotton Claudius A.viii,
Doyle, A. I. “English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII.”
In V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherbourne, eds. English Court Culture in the Later Middle
Ages. London: Duckworth, 1983. 163-81.
Edwards, A. S. G. “John Stow and Middle English Literature.” In John Stow (1525-1605) and the Making of the English Past. Ian Gadd and Alexandra Gillespie,
eds. London: British Library, 2004. 109-18. [Facsimiles of MS Harley 372 (103r) and MS Additional
Everett, Virginia Thornton. [Mrs. Lowell P. Leland]. “A Study of the Scribal Editing
in Twelve MSS of the Canterbury Tales.” Diss. University of Chicago, 1940. 19-25 [“Scribe P”]
Green, Richard Firth. “Notes on Some Manuscripts of Hoccleve’s Regiment of Princes.” British Library Journal 4 (1978): 39-41. [Facsimile of Harley 372, fol. 103r.]
Hammond, Eleanor P. “Two British Museum Manuscripts (Harley 2251 and Add. 34360): A
Contribution to the Biography of John Lydgate.” Anglia: Zeitschrift für Englische
Philologie 28 (1905): 1-28.
Hammond, Eleanor P. Chaucer: A Bibliographical Manual. 1908; rpt. New
York: Peter Smith, 1933.
Hammond, Eleanor P. “A Scribe of Chaucer.” Modern
Philology 27 (1929): 27-33. [Facsimiles]
Horobin, Simon. “Linguistic Features of the Hammond Scribe.” Poetica 51 (1999): 1-10.
Horobin, Simon. The Language of the Chaucer Tradition. Cambridge: D.
S. Brewer, 2003. 157-8
Ker, N. R. Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries. Vol. 1. Oxford:
Clarendon, 1969. 216
Kurtz, Patricia Deery, and Linda Ehrsam Voigts. “Contents, Unique Treatises, and
Related Manuscripts.” In Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium:
Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina.
Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. 1:19-54.
Manly, John M., and Edith Rickert, eds. The Text of the Canterbury Tales:
Studied on the Basis of All Known Manuscripts. 8 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1940.
Matheson, Lister M. “The Dialect of the Hammond Scribe.“ In Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text,
Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and
Renaissance Studies, 2006. 1:65-93.
Mooney, Linne R. “A Middle English Text on the Seven Liberal Arts.” Speculum 68 (1993): 1027-52.
Mooney, Linne R. “A New Manuscript by the Hammond Scribe, Discovered by Jeremy
Griffiths.” In A. S. G. Edwards, Vincent Gillespie, and Ralph Hanna, eds. The English
Medieval Book: Studies in Memory of Jeremy Griffiths. London: The British Library, 2000. 113-23.
Mooney, Linne R. “The Scribe.” In Sex, Aging, & Death
in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe.
2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006.
Mosser, Daniel W. “Dating the Manuscripts of the ‘Hammond Scribe’: What
the Paper Evidence Tells Us.” The Journal of the Early Book Society 10 (2007):
Pahta, Päivi. “Description of the Manuscript.” In Sex,
Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language,
and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies,
Tavormina, M. Teresa, ed. Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical
Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Tempe: Arizona
Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006.
Voigts, Linda Ehrsam. “Scientific and Medical Books.” In Jeremy Griffiths and
Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1989. 345-402. [esp. p. 382]
Wanley, H., et. al. Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British
Museum. Record Commission ed. London, 1808-12. 1:20-1