SEARCH RECORDS

INTRODUCTION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
NOTATIONAL CONVENTIONS
UNTRACED MANUSCRIPTS
SCRIBE B=ADAM PINKHURST
SCRIBE D=JOHN MARCHAUNT
THE HAMMOND SCRIBE
THE “HOOKED-g” SCRIBES
THE PETWORTH SCRIBE
THE BERYN SCRIBE
BIBLIOGRAPHY
HOME
initial
A Digital Catalogue of the
Pre-1500 Manuscripts and Incunables of the
Canterbury Tales
Second Edition
THE HAMMOND SCRIBE
This prolific scribe, referred to as the “Hammond Scribe,” may have been John Multon (d. 1475note) based on the occurrences of “Quod Multon 1458” on fol. 215r and “Quod Multon” on fols. 217r, 219r, and 222r in Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.14.52. Linne Mooney, however, argues that the identification is incorrect since the name occurs only in one text, “a tract on making and using a quadrant,” and suggests that Multon may instead identify the source of the quadrant text (Mooney 1993, p. 1028, and n. 8).
The hand is mixed, with the “rolled-umbrella” secretary descenders on long s, f, an elongated, leftward-slanting, and slender tail on p, single-compartment a, z-shaped r, with the looped d and two-compartment g of anglicana. The scribe occasionally employs a tailed g. The scribe’s display script in Py is a version of textura semiquadrata. In addition to the scribe’s copies of the Canterbury Tales described elsewhere in this catalogue (Hl², Py, and Ry¹), his work has been found in the following manuscripts:
1. Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.3.21 (fols. 34r-49v, the section containing Parce Mihi Domine and Pety Job; Hammond 1929, p. 33).
2. Trinity College, Cambridge MS R.14.52: Treatises of Roger Bacon: “a collection of treatises, recipes, lists, and problems, principally related to the practice of medicine, but also strong in the related sciences of mathematics and astronomy/astrology” (Mooney 1993, p. 1028), including “The Seven Liberal Arts: A Late Middle English Encyclopedia” (ed. Mooney 1993, pp. 1037-1052). See Tavormina 2006 for a comprehensive study of this MS.
3. Trinity College, Cambridge MS O.3.11 (identified by Mooney).
4. British Library MS Additional 34360 (olim Phillipps 9053): contains a number of shorter works by Chaucer and Lydgate, and Lydgate and Burgh’s Secrees of old Philisoffres (DIMEV 1544) Cf. the contents of Harley 2251 [listing in Hammond 1905].
5. British Library MS Arundel 59 (Hoccleve’s De regimine principum, Lydgate’s translation of the Secrees of olde Philisoffres, [DIMEV 1544], and “three miscellaneous literary collections” [Hammond 1929, p. 27; Green 1978]).
6. British Library MS Cotton Claudius A.viii (fols. 175r-197v: “a post-mediaeval assemblage of independent items and fragments of earlier books,” including Sir John Fortescue’s Governance of England, “which refers to King Edward IV and must be dated after 1471, when the author first gave him allegiance [Doyle 1959, pp. 432-433]).
7. British Library MS Harley 78 (fol. 3r: Piers the Ploughman’s Creed; DIMEV 1086; see Doyle 1959; Wanley 1908, 1:20-21).
8. British Library MS Harley 372 (fols. 71r-112r: Hoccleve, De Regimine Principium, beginning at 3312: “[M]ercy aftir the word of Seynt Austyn | Of hert is a verray compassioun”; see Green 1978 for a facsimile of fol. 103r).
9. British Library MS Harley 4999 (Statutes of the Realm).
10. Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson D.913 (fol. 43r-v: “a nineteenth-century assemblage of English and French binding fragments and larger excerpts from that collection, many of considerable interest.” Fol. 43 contains a fragment of the English prose Merlin [Doyle 1959, p. 433]).
11. Worcester Cathedral Library MS F.172 (“English prose translations of Latin apocrypha and authentic books of scripture, exemplary tales, devotional and didactic treatises, and ecclesiastical decrees, with some vernacular contemplative compositions” [Doyle 1959, pp. 430-431]; for a complete description of the contents, see DiMarco and Perelman 1978, pp. 1-8).
12. British Library MS Additional 29901: “Tracts on State Ceremonials” (identified by the late Jeremy J. Griffiths; see Mooney 2000 for a description).
LANGUAGE
The most recent analyses of the Hammond Scribe’s spellings are Horobin 1999; Horobin 2003, pp. 157-58; and Matheson 2006. Examining the scribe’s body of work, Horobin observes the following marked “Kentish features”: “‘bien’ BE, and related spellings showing 〈ie〉 for OE e, eo, and OF e,” as in hield for HELD, chiere for CHEER, and thiese for THESE. “Py also contains a number of broadly Western dialect features, such as OE y reflected in 〈u〉, 〈uy〉, e.g. ‘fuyre’, ‘busie’ and the single occurrence of the form ‘bott’ BUT. However these forms are not found in any other manuscript in this scribe’s hand, and are therefore likely to derive from the exemplar. Alongside the forms showing OE y in 〈u〉 are a number of spellings, common to Py and other manuscripts in the scribe’s hand, with OE y reflected in 〈y, i〉, as shown in ‘myrry’, ‘synne’, ‘chirche’, and it seems likely that these forms represent the scribe’s preferred usage. This mixture of forms suggests that the scribe’s native dialect was that of Kent and that he was an immigrant to London where his prolific copying career resulted in the gradual adoption of a number of Type IV spelling features” (2003, p. 158).
Matheson concludes that the “cumulative weight of the…spelling features suggests strongly that they originated in northwest Essex or southwest Suffolk,” and finds this “especially intriguing in light of the Cook and Vale family ties to these areas” (2006, p. 87; John Vale’s monogram is found on fol. 1r in Trinity R.14.52 and also occurs in Harley 2251 on fol. 175r and Worcester Cathedral Library MS F.172 on fol. 169v). Vale was “secretary and man of affairs to Sir Thomas Cook, a member of the Draper’s Company and Mayor of London 1462-63” (Mooney 2006, p. 57, citing Sutton and Visser-Fuchs 1995, pp. 82 and passim).
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Christianson, C. Paul. “Evidence for the Study of London’s Late Medieval Manuscript-Book Trade.” In Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 87-108. [esp. 99-101, notes 38 & 43]
Christianson, C. Paul. A Directory of London Stationers and Book Artisans 1300-1500. New York: Bibliographical Society of America, 1990. 136-7
DiMarco, Vincent, and Leslie Perelman, eds. The Middle English Letter of Alexander to Aristotle. Costerius n.s. 13. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1978. [Description of Worcester Cathedral Library MS F.172]
Doyle, A. I. “An Unrecognized Piece of Piers the Ploughman’s Creed and Other Work by Its Scribe.” Speculum 34 (1959): 428-36. [Two facsimiles: Harley MS 78, 3r; Cotton Claudius A.viii, 175r]
Doyle, A. I. “English Books In and Out of Court from Edward III to Henry VII.” In V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherbourne, eds. English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages. London: Duckworth, 1983. 163-81. 
Edwards, A. S. G. “John Stow and Middle English Literature.” In John Stow (1525-1605) and the Making of the English Past. Ian Gadd and Alexandra Gillespie, eds. London: British Library, 2004. 109-18. [Facsimiles of MS Harley 372 (103r) and MS Additional 34360 (19r)]
Everett, Virginia Thornton. [Mrs. Lowell P. Leland]. “A Study of the Scribal Editing in Twelve MSS of the Canterbury Tales.” Diss. University of Chicago, 1940. 19-25 [“Scribe P”]
Green, Richard Firth. “Notes on Some Manuscripts of Hoccleve’s Regiment of Princes.” British Library Journal 4 (1978): 39-41. [Facsimile of Harley 372, fol. 103r.]
Hammond, Eleanor P. “Two British Museum Manuscripts (Harley 2251 and Add. 34360): A Contribution to the Biography of John Lydgate.” Anglia: Zeitschrift für Englische Philologie 28 (1905): 1-28. 
Hammond, Eleanor P. Chaucer: A Bibliographical Manual. 1908; rpt. New York: Peter Smith, 1933.  
Hammond, Eleanor P. “A Scribe of Chaucer.” Modern Philology 27 (1929): 27-33. [Facsimiles]
Horobin, Simon. “Linguistic Features of the Hammond Scribe.” Poetica 51 (1999): 1-10. 
Horobin, Simon. The Language of the Chaucer Tradition. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2003. 157-8
Ker, N. R. Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries. Vol. 1. Oxford: Clarendon, 1969. 216
Kurtz, Patricia Deery, and Linda Ehrsam Voigts. “Contents, Unique Treatises, and Related Manuscripts.” In Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. 1:19-54. 
Manly, John M., and Edith Rickert, eds. The Text of the Canterbury Tales: Studied on the Basis of All Known Manuscripts. 8 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1940. 
Matheson, Lister M. “The Dialect of the Hammond Scribe.“ In Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. 1:65-93. 
Mooney, Linne R. “A Middle English Text on the Seven Liberal Arts.” Speculum 68 (1993): 1027-52. 
Mooney, Linne R. “A New Manuscript by the Hammond Scribe, Discovered by Jeremy Griffiths.” In A. S. G. Edwards, Vincent Gillespie, and Ralph Hanna, eds. The English Medieval Book: Studies in Memory of Jeremy Griffiths. London: The British Library, 2000. 113-23. 
Mooney, Linne R. “The Scribe.” In Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. 1:55-63. 
Mosser, Daniel W. “Dating the Manuscripts of the ‘Hammond Scribe’: What the Paper Evidence Tells Us.” The Journal of the Early Book Society 10 (2007): 31-70. 
Pahta, Päivi. “Description of the Manuscript.” In Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Ed. M. Teresa Tavormina. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. 1:1-17. 
Tavormina, M. Teresa, ed. Sex, Aging, & Death in a Medieval Medical Compendium: Trinity College Cambridge MS R.14.52, Its Text, Language, and Scribe. 2 vols. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2006. 
Voigts, Linda Ehrsam. “Scientific and Medical Books.” In Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall, eds. Book Production and Publishing in Britain, 1375-1475. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. 345-402. [esp. p. 382]
Wanley, H., et. al. Catalogue of the Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum. Record Commission ed. London, 1808-12. 1:20-1